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Mausoleum

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Location:
In the city of Bodrum (formerly known as Halicarnassus) on the Aegean Sea, in south-west of Turkey.
History:
From 377 to 353 BC, king Mausollos of Caria
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had reigned the Persian and turned the city of Halicarnassus into his capital. Nothing was exciting about Maussollos life except the construction of his tomb. The project was conceived by his wife and sister Artemisia, and the construction might have started during the king's lifetime. The Mausoleum was completed around 350 BC, three years after Maussollos death, and one year after Artemisia's.
For 16 centuries, the Mausoleum remained in good condition until an earthquake caused some damage to the roof and colonnade. In the early fifteenth century, the Knights of St John of Malta invaded the region and built a massive crusader castle. When they decided to fortify it in 1494, they used the stones of the Mausoleum. By 1522, almost every block of the Mausoleum had been disassembled and used for construction.
Today, the massive castle still stands in Bodrum, and the polished stone and marble blocks of the Mausoleum can be spotted within the walls of the structure. Some of the sculptures survived and are today on display at the British Museum in London. At the site of the Mausoleum itself, only the foundation remained of the once magnificent World Wonder.
Since the nineteenth century, archeological excavations have been undertaken at the Mausoleum site. These excavations together with detailed descriptions by ancient historians. A modern reconstruction of the shorter side of the Mausoleum give us a fairly good idea about the shape and appearance of the Mausoleum... a building for a King whose name is celebrated in all large tombs today.

Architecture:
The structure was rectangular in plan, with base dimensions of about 40 m (120 ft) by 30 m (100 ft). Overlying the foundation was a stepped podium which sides were decorated with statues. The burial chamber and the sarcophagus of white alabaster decorated with gold were located on the podium. The total height of the Mausoleum was 45 m (140 ft).
The beauty of the Mausoleum is not only in the structure itself, but in the decorations and statues that adorned the outside at different levels on the podium and the roof. These were tens of life-size as well as under and over life-size statues of people, lions, horses, and other animals.

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